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PostgreSQL DaaS设计注意 - schema与database的抉择

原作者:digoal/德哥  创作时间:2016-10-13 19:18:37+08  
doudou586 发布于2016-10-13 19:18:37           评论: 0   浏览: 6483   顶: 1478  踩: 1570 

PostgreSQL DaaS设计注意 - schema与database的抉择

2016 Postgres大象会官方报名通道: 点此报名



作者: digoal

日期: 2016-10-12

标签: PostgreSQL , DaaS , 模板 , schema , database , apply delay , standby

背景

市面上有一些提供DaaS服务的厂商,例如heroKu,可能有上百万的数据库服务;

又比如提供PaaS平台的服务商,数据库也会有很多,同事这些数据库可能也是模板化的,这些厂商并不一定是为每个客户都新建一个数据库集群来满足数据库的需求。

很有可能是使用数据库或者schema来隔离不同用户的。

1. 例如将模板存储在模板数据库中,根据一个模板数据库创建新的数据库提供服务。

2. 有或者将模板存储在SQL文件中,使用SQL文件构建新的SCHEMA提供服务。

两种方式构建模板的差别

1. 数据库的方式隔离比较彻底,共用的资源较少。

可以实现存储的隔离。

可以实现connection的隔离。

可以实现auth的隔离。

可以实现权限的隔离。

但是数据库与数据库之间是无法直接访问的,需要的话通过DBLINK或者FDW插件,当然也可以应用层面跨库访问。

2. schema的方式,共用资源较多,可以同时操作不同的schema之间的对象,事务都是本地事务。

简单来说是有schema更便捷,但是权限隔离没有使用数据库那么彻底,可以从pg_class等系统表窥探到没有权限的对象的定义。

从生成效率来讲,使用数据库模板的方式会高很多,因为它只需要COPY DIR,产生的REDO很少,也不需要大量的变更元数据。

从删除效率来讲,差别也非常大,删除SCHEMA与创建schema一样,会产生大量的REDO,甚至会导致STANDBY剧烈的延迟,后面会有分析。而删除数据库很快,只产生少量的REDO。

本文将要给大家分析的就是两者在创建和删除时的大幅差异。

环境准备

用到两块PCI-E SSD,分别存放主库和备库。

主库监听5289,备库监听5290

配置

1. postgresql.conf

listen_addresses = '0.0.0.0'
port = 5289
max_connections = 100
unix_socket_directories = '.'
shared_buffers = 8GB
maintenance_work_mem = 512MB
dynamic_shared_memory_type = posix
bgwriter_delay = 10ms
bgwriter_lru_maxpages = 1000
bgwriter_lru_multiplier = 10.0
wal_level = hot_standby
synchronous_commit = off
wal_buffers = 128MB
wal_writer_delay = 10ms
checkpoint_segments = 256
checkpoint_timeout = 30min
checkpoint_completion_target = 0.0001
max_wal_senders = 10
wal_keep_segments = 512
hot_standby = on
max_standby_archive_delay = 300s
max_standby_streaming_delay = 300s
wal_receiver_status_interval = 1s
hot_standby_feedback = on
random_page_cost = 1.0
log_destination = 'csvlog'
logging_collector = on
log_truncate_on_rotation = on
log_checkpoints = on
log_connections = on
log_disconnections = on
log_error_verbosity = verbose
log_timezone = 'PRC'
autovacuum = on
log_autovacuum_min_duration = 0
autovacuum_naptime = 10s
datestyle = 'iso, mdy'
timezone = 'PRC'
lc_messages = 'C'
lc_monetary = 'C'
lc_numeric = 'C'
lc_time = 'C'
default_text_search_config = 'pg_catalog.english'
max_locks_per_transaction = 1000000

2. pg_hba.conf

local   all             all                                     trust
host    all             all             127.0.0.1/32            trust
host    all             all             ::1/128                 trust
host    replication     postgres        127.0.0.1/32            trust

3. recovery.done

recovery_target_timeline = 'latest'
standby_mode = on
primary_conninfo = 'host=localhost port=5289 user=postgres'

创建备库

pg_basebackup -D /data01/digoal/pg_root5290 -F p -x -h 127.0.0.1 -p 5289 -U postgres

cd /data01/digoal/pg_root5290
mv recovery.done recovery.conf

vi postgresql.conf
port = 5290

pg_ctl start

准备schema

进入template1数据库,准备schema。

\c template1 postgres

主表建表语句如下,为了让schema尽量大一些,使用这种方法来建立。

create table test(
c0 serial  unique  check(c0>0), 
c1 serial  unique  check(c1>0), 
c2 serial  unique  check(c2>0),
c3 serial  unique  check(c3>0), 
c4 serial  unique  check(c4>0),
c5 serial  unique  check(c5>0), 
c6 serial  unique  check(c6>0),
c7 serial  unique  check(c7>0), 
c8 serial  unique  check(c8>0),
c9 serial  unique  check(c9>0), 
c10 serial unique   check(c10>0), 
c11 serial unique   check(c11>0), 
c12 serial unique   check(c12>0),
c13 serial unique   check(c13>0), 
c14 serial unique   check(c14>0),
c15 serial unique   check(c15>0), 
c16 serial unique   check(c16>0),
c17 serial unique   check(c17>0), 
c18 serial unique   check(c18>0),
c19 serial unique   check(c19>0), 
c20 serial unique   check(c20>0), 
c21 serial unique   check(c21>0), 
c22 serial unique   check(c22>0),
c23 serial unique   check(c23>0), 
c24 serial unique   check(c24>0),
c25 serial unique   check(c25>0), 
c26 serial unique   check(c26>0),
c27 serial unique   check(c27>0), 
c28 serial unique   check(c28>0),
c29 serial unique   check(c29>0), 
c30 serial unique   check(c30>0), 
c31 serial unique   check(c31>0), 
c32 serial unique   check(c32>0),
c33 serial unique   check(c33>0), 
c34 serial unique   check(c34>0),
c35 serial unique   check(c35>0), 
c36 serial unique   check(c36>0),
c37 serial unique   check(c37>0), 
c38 serial unique   check(c38>0),
c39 serial unique   check(c39>0), 
c40 serial unique   check(c40>0), 
c41 serial unique   check(c41>0), 
c42 serial unique   check(c42>0),
c43 serial unique   check(c43>0), 
c44 serial unique   check(c44>0),
c45 serial unique   check(c45>0), 
c46 serial unique   check(c46>0),
c47 serial unique   check(c47>0), 
c48 serial unique   check(c48>0),
c49 serial unique   check(c49>0), 
c50 serial unique   check(c50>0), 
c51 serial unique   check(c51>0), 
c52 serial unique   check(c52>0),
c53 serial unique   check(c53>0), 
c54 serial unique   check(c54>0),
c55 serial unique   check(c55>0), 
c56 serial unique   check(c56>0),
c57 serial unique   check(c57>0), 
c58 serial unique   check(c58>0),
c59 serial unique   check(c59>0), 
c60 serial unique   check(c60>0), 
c61 serial unique   check(c61>0), 
c62 serial unique   check(c62>0),
c63 serial unique   check(c63>0), 
c64 serial unique   check(c64>0),
c65 serial unique   check(c65>0), 
c66 serial unique   check(c66>0),
c67 serial unique   check(c67>0), 
c68 serial unique   check(c68>0),
c69 serial unique   check(c69>0), 
c70 serial unique   check(c70>0), 
c71 serial unique   check(c71>0), 
c72 serial unique   check(c72>0),
c73 serial unique   check(c73>0), 
c74 serial unique   check(c74>0),
c75 serial unique   check(c75>0), 
c76 serial unique   check(c76>0),
c77 serial unique   check(c77>0), 
c78 serial unique   check(c78>0),
c79 serial unique   check(c79>0), 
c80 serial unique   check(c80>0), 
c81 serial unique   check(c81>0), 
c82 serial unique   check(c82>0),
c83 serial unique   check(c83>0), 
c84 serial unique   check(c84>0),
c85 serial unique   check(c85>0), 
c86 serial unique   check(c86>0),
c87 serial unique   check(c87>0), 
c88 serial unique   check(c88>0),
c89 serial unique   check(c89>0), 
c90 serial unique   check(c90>0), 
c91 serial unique   check(c91>0), 
c92 serial unique   check(c92>0),
c93 serial unique   check(c93>0), 
c94 serial unique   check(c94>0),
c95 serial unique   check(c95>0), 
c96 serial unique   check(c96>0),
c97 serial unique   check(c97>0), 
c98 serial unique   check(c98>0),
c99 serial unique   check(c99>0)
);

100个字段,每个字段都有一个约束。

在数据库元数据中,也会产生一大批系统记录,例如

每个表至少会新增的元数据(没算序列的,算序列还更多)

pg_class , 101条 (表+索引)

pg_attribute , 106条 (tableoid, cmax, cmin, xmax, xmin, ctid, 字段)

pg_constraint , 200条 (唯一, check各100个)

pg_depend , 401条 (表, 索引+唯一约束+check约束)(索引,唯一约束)

pg_index , 100条

同时还会产生很多数据文件,每个索引,表都会有一个数据文件,如果算上fork(vm, fsm, init)的话,就更多了。

使用test新建500张一样的表,会产生较多的元数据变动,同时会产生一堆数据文件。

do language plpgsql $$         
declare
  i int ;
begin
  for i in 1..500 loop
    execute 'create table test'||i||' (like test including all)';
  end loop;
end;
$$;

建完表后,template1就变500多MB了。

template1=# \l+
                                                    List of databases
   Name    |  Owner   | Encoding | Collate | Ctype |   Access privileges  |  Size   | Tablespace |          Description    
-----------+----------+----------+---------+-------+-----------------------+---------+------------+-------------------------------
 postgres  | postgres | UTF8     | C       | C     |                       | 1044 MB | pg_default | default administrative connection database
 template0 | postgres | UTF8     | C       | C     | =c/postgres          +| 6681 kB | pg_default | unmodifiable empty database
           |          |          |         |       | postgres=CTc/postgres |         |            | 
 template1 | postgres | UTF8     | C       | C     | =c/postgres          +| 624 MB  | pg_default | default template for new databases
           |          |          |         |       | postgres=CTc/postgres |         |            | 

测试drop schema

以template1为模板创建新数据库

postgres=# create database db0 with template template1;

记录当前XLOG位点

postgres=# select pg_current_xlog_location();
-[ RECORD 1 ]------------+-----------
pg_current_xlog_location | 1/7394D08

删除schema

\c db0

drop schema public cascade;

记录当前XLOG位点

等待drop schema结束,并记录当前XLOG位点(很长一段时间后稳定(autovacuum)结束)

db0=# select pg_current_xlog_location();
-[ RECORD 1 ]------------+-----------
pg_current_xlog_location | 1/168E6EA8

监控延迟

在主库执行

\x

select 
pg_size_pretty(pg_xlog_location_diff(pg_current_xlog_location(),sent_location)),
pg_size_pretty(pg_xlog_location_diff(pg_current_xlog_location(),write_location)),
pg_size_pretty(pg_xlog_location_diff(pg_current_xlog_location(),flush_location)),
pg_size_pretty(pg_xlog_location_diff(pg_current_xlog_location(),replay_location)), 
* from pg_stat_replication ;

\watch 1

发现备库apply卡在一个REDO REC上很久,如果接下来主库又产生了大量的REDO,那么备库的apply就会延迟严重。

主机REDO发送是没有延迟的,也就是说REDO已经在备机那里了,但是还没有被apply。

-[ RECORD 1 ]----+------------------------------
pg_size_pretty   | 0 bytes
pg_size_pretty   | 0 bytes
pg_size_pretty   | 0 bytes
pg_size_pretty   | 56 MB  -- 出现apply延迟
pid              | 27375
usesysid         | 10
usename          | postgres
application_name | walreceiver
client_addr      | 127.0.0.1
client_hostname  | 
client_port      | 53164
backend_start    | 2016-10-12 10:17:16.414473+08
backend_xmin     | 2030
state            | streaming
sent_location    | 1/168E6EA8
write_location   | 1/168E6EA8
flush_location   | 1/168E6EA8
replay_location  | 1/13151E28  -- 卡住
sync_priority    | 0
sync_state       | async

备机apply延迟严重的话,另外一个问题就是备机的xlog会占用较大的空间。

延迟分析

使用pg_xlogdump分析 "堵塞" apply的redo rec

pg_xlogdump -b 000000010000000100000013 000000010000000100000014 2>&1 |less

搜索1/13151E28

rmgr: Transaction len (rec/tot): 17680828/17680860, tx: 2029, lsn: 1/13151E28, prev 1/13151930, bkp: 0000, desc: commit: 2016-10-12 17:04:39.615288 CST; rels:

大量的文件位置

base/400932/199021 base/400932/199422 base/400932/199019 base/400932/199420 base/400932/199017 base/400932/199418 base/400932/199015

base/400932/199416 base/400932/199013

base/400932/199414 base/400932/199011 base/400932/199412 base/400932/199009 base/400932/199410

base/400932/199007 base/400932/199408 base/400932/199005 base/400932/199406 base/400932/199003 base/400932/199404 base/400932/199001

base/400932/199402 base/400932/198999

........

........

lcache 400523 snapshot 2608 relcache 400523 snapshot 2608 snapshot 2608 relcache 400730 relcache 400523 snapshot 2608 relcache 400523

snapshot 2608 relcache 400523 snapshot 2608 snapshot 2608 relcache 400728 relcache 400523 snapshot 2608

relcache 400523 snapshot 2608 relcache 400523 snapshot 2608 snapshot 2608 relcache 400726 relcache 400523 snapshot 2608 snapshot 2608 snapshot 2608

rmgr: Standby len (rec/tot): 24/ 56, tx: 0, lsn: 1/1423B310, prev 1/13151E28, bkp: 0000, desc: running xacts: nextXid 2030 latestCompletedXid 2029 oldestRunningXid 2030

这笔redo很大,十几MB

db0=# select pg_xlog_location_diff('1/1423B310', '1/13151E28');
-[ RECORD 1 ]---------+---------
pg_xlog_location_diff | 17732840

备库apply卡住的地方,跟踪备库startup进程(用于recovery的进程)在干什么

strace -p $pid  

一堆的unlink

unlink("base/400932/307422") = 0

unlink("base/400932/307422.1") = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)

unlink("base/400932/307422_fsm") = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)

unlink("base/400932/307422_vm") = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)

unlink("base/400932/307422_init") = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)

unlink("base/400932/307420") = 0

unlink("base/400932/307420.1") = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)

unlink("base/400932/307420_fsm") = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)

unlink("base/400932/307420_vm") = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)

unlink("base/400932/307420_init") = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)

unlink("base/400932/307418") = 0

unlink("base/400932/307418.1") = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)

unlink("base/400932/307418_fsm") = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)

unlink("base/400932/307418_vm") = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)

unlink("base/400932/307418_init") = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)

unlink("base/400932/307416") = 0

unlink("base/400932/307416.1") = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)

unlink("base/400932/307416_fsm") = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)

unlink("base/400932/307416_vm") = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)

unlink("base/400932/307416_init") = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)

....

还有很多

查看一下template1下面有多少个文件,(200多个是系统自带的一些元表的数据文件)有50954多个文件。

unlink这些文件至少也要耗费10几分钟。

小结

1. drop schema 产生了多少redo

本例的测试用例,约17MB的REDO。

2. 为什么drop schema会导致standby apply的延迟严重

大量的文件操作,导致了apply的延迟。

测试基于database的DaaS

记录当前XLOG位点

postgres=# select pg_current_xlog_location();
 pg_current_xlog_location 
--------------------------
 1/168EE5F8
(1 row)

以template1为模板创建新数据库

postgres=# create database db0 with template template1;

记录当前XLOG位点

postgres=# select pg_current_xlog_location();
 pg_current_xlog_location 
--------------------------
 1/168F0640
(1 row)

创建数据库产生了多少REDO

postgres=# select pg_xlog_location_diff('1/168F0640', '1/168EE5F8');
-[ RECORD 1 ]---------+-----
pg_xlog_location_diff | 8264

删除database

postgres=# drop database db0;
DROP DATABASE

记录当前XLOG位点

postgres=# select pg_current_xlog_location();
 pg_current_xlog_location 
--------------------------
 1/168F20E0
(1 row)

drop数据库产生了多少REDO

postgres=# select pg_xlog_location_diff('1/168F20E0','1/168F0640');
-[ RECORD 1 ]---------+-----
pg_xlog_location_diff | 6816

监控延迟

在主库执行

select 
pg_size_pretty(pg_xlog_location_diff(pg_current_xlog_location(),sent_location)),
pg_size_pretty(pg_xlog_location_diff(pg_current_xlog_location(),write_location)),
pg_size_pretty(pg_xlog_location_diff(pg_current_xlog_location(),flush_location)),
pg_size_pretty(pg_xlog_location_diff(pg_current_xlog_location(),replay_location)), 
* from pg_stat_replication ;

\watch 1

未发现延迟

-[ RECORD 1 ]----+------------------------------
pg_size_pretty   | 0 bytes
pg_size_pretty   | 0 bytes
pg_size_pretty   | 0 bytes
pg_size_pretty   | 0 bytes
pid              | 27375
usesysid         | 10
usename          | postgres
application_name | walreceiver
client_addr      | 127.0.0.1
client_hostname  | 
client_port      | 53164
backend_start    | 2016-10-12 10:17:16.414473+08
backend_xmin     | 2046
state            | streaming
sent_location    | 1/168F20E0
write_location   | 1/168F20E0
flush_location   | 1/168F20E0
replay_location  | 1/168F20E0
sync_priority    | 0
sync_state       | async

xlogdump分析

分析一下create 和 drop database产生的redo内容

pg_xlogdump -b 000000010000000100000016 000000010000000100000016 2>&1 |less

分析从1/168EE5F8到1/168F20E0的内容全部如下

rmgr: Standby len (rec/tot): 24/ 56, tx: 0, lsn: 1/168EE5F8, prev 1/168EE5A8, bkp: 0000, desc: running xacts: nextXid 2044 latestCompletedXid 2043 oldestRunningXid 2044

rmgr: Heap len (rec/tot): 21/ 6437, tx: 2044, lsn: 1/168EE630, prev 1/168EE5F8, bkp: 1000, desc: insert: rel 1664/0/12999; tid 0/24

backup bkp #0; rel 1664/0/12999; fork: main; block: 0; hole: offset: 120, length: 1832

rmgr: Btree len (rec/tot): 18/ 618, tx: 2044, lsn: 1/168EFF58, prev 1/168EE630, bkp: 1000, desc: insert: rel 1664/0/13001; tid 1/1

backup bkp #0; rel 1664/0/13001; fork: main; block: 1; hole: offset: 120, length: 7648

rmgr: Btree len (rec/tot): 18/ 594, tx: 2044, lsn: 1/168F01E0, prev 1/168EFF58, bkp: 1000, desc: insert: rel 1664/0/13002; tid 1/24

backup bkp #0; rel 1664/0/13002; fork: main; block: 1; hole: offset: 120, length: 7672

rmgr: Standby len (rec/tot): 28/ 60, tx: 0, lsn: 1/168F0438, prev 1/168F01E0, bkp: 0000, desc: running xacts: nextXid 2045 latestCompletedXid 2043 oldestRunningXid 2044; 1 xacts: 2044

rmgr: XLOG len (rec/tot): 72/ 104, tx: 0, lsn: 1/168F0478, prev 1/168F0438, bkp: 0000, desc: checkpoint: redo 1/168F0438; tli 1; prev tli 1; fpw true; xid 0/2045; oid 401408; multi 1; offset 0; oldest xid 1798 in DB 1; oldest multi 1 in DB 1; oldest running xid 2044; online

rmgr: Database len (rec/tot): 16/ 48, tx: 2044, lsn: 1/168F04E0, prev 1/168F0478, bkp: 0000, desc: create db: copy dir 1/1663 to 400934/1663

rmgr: Standby len (rec/tot): 28/ 60, tx: 0, lsn: 1/168F0510, prev 1/168F04E0, bkp: 0000, desc: running xacts: nextXid 2045 latestCompletedXid 2043 oldestRunningXid 2044; 1 xacts: 2044

rmgr: XLOG len (rec/tot): 72/ 104, tx: 0, lsn: 1/168F0550, prev 1/168F0510, bkp: 0000, desc: checkpoint: redo 1/168F0510; tli 1; prev tli 1; fpw true; xid 0/2045; oid 401408; multi 1; offset 0; oldest xid 1798 in DB 1; oldest multi 1 in DB 1; oldest running xid 2044; online

rmgr: Transaction len (rec/tot): 48/ 80, tx: 2044, lsn: 1/168F05B8, prev 1/168F0550, bkp: 0000, desc: commit: 2016-10-12 19:17:16.791771 CST; inval msgs: catcache 21

rmgr: Standby len (rec/tot): 24/ 56, tx: 0, lsn: 1/168F0608, prev 1/168F05B8, bkp: 0000, desc: running xacts: nextXid 2045 latestCompletedXid 2044 oldestRunningXid 2045

rmgr: Heap len (rec/tot): 26/ 6442, tx: 2045, lsn: 1/168F0640, prev 1/168F0608, bkp: 1000, desc: delete: rel 1664/0/12999; tid 0/24 KEYS_UPDATED

backup bkp #0; rel 1664/0/12999; fork: main; block: 0; hole: offset: 120, length: 1832

rmgr: Standby len (rec/tot): 28/ 60, tx: 0, lsn: 1/168F1F70, prev 1/168F0640, bkp: 0000, desc: running xacts: nextXid 2046 latestCompletedXid 2044 oldestRunningXid 2045; 1 xacts: 2045

rmgr: XLOG len (rec/tot): 72/ 104, tx: 0, lsn: 1/168F1FB0, prev 1/168F1F70, bkp: 0000, desc: checkpoint: redo 1/168F1F70; tli 1; prev tli 1; fpw true; xid 0/2046; oid 401408; multi 1; offset 0; oldest xid 1798 in DB 1; oldest multi 1 in DB 1; oldest running xid 2045; online

rmgr: Database len (rec/tot): 8/ 40, tx: 2045, lsn: 1/168F2030, prev 1/168F1FB0, bkp: 0000, desc: drop db: dir 400934/1663

rmgr: Transaction len (rec/tot): 48/ 80, tx: 2045, lsn: 1/168F2058, prev 1/168F2030, bkp: 0000, desc: commit: 2016-10-12 19:17:30.981401 CST; inval msgs: catcache 21

rmgr: Standby len (rec/tot): 24/ 56, tx: 0, lsn: 1/168F20A8, prev 1/168F2058, bkp: 0000, desc: running xacts: nextXid 2046 latestCompletedXid 2045 oldestRunningXid 2046

create 和 drop database并没有产生很多的日志,也没有那么多的文件操作。只有copy dir和drop dir。

文件操作少了,比drop schema快多了。

小结

1. schema和database在物理结构上的差别

database是以目录的形式组织在表空间的目录下的,而schema是以文件的形式在数据库的目录下的,没有再细分独立的目录。

所以在drop database时系统调用变得更简单,而drop schema需要挨个文件来。

2. schema和database在元数据上的差别

简单来说就是比擦屁股的动作, drop database擦屁股很快,因为元数据很少只影响pg_databases。

drop schema擦屁股就很烦了,要挨个清理pg_class, pg_attribute, 等等元表。 元表清理完还需要vacuum。

3. create 和 drop schema的文件操作很多,是一个个文件进行的,而且都会记录在REDO中,如果schema中有很对对象并且有很多文件的话,会非常慢。

4. create 和 drop database产生的日志少,系统调用也更少。

schema不建议作为daas的模板环境频繁(新增和删除时)使用,如果要频繁的创建和删除模板,建议使用database作为模板。

database作为模板的一个缺点是连接复用的问题,因为连接复用需要基于user+database,如果有很多DB的话,连接可能会消耗很多。

优化点

把schema放到database下,新增一个目录存放。删除的时候可以drop dir,但是清理元数据还是少不了的。

schema与其他schema之间的一些依赖关系也需要清理(可能涉及元数据的清理)。


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