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PostgreSQL 统计信息混淆之处(scan,read,fetch,hit)源码解读

原作者:digoal / 德哥  创作时间:2016-10-22 20:31:54+08  
doudou586 发布于2016-10-23 20:31:54           评论: 0   浏览: 4224   顶: 409  踩: 435 

PostgreSQL 统计信息混淆之处(scan,read,fetch,hit)源码解读

2016 Postgres大象会官方报名通道: 点此报名



作者: digoal

日期: 2016-03-18

PostgreSQL 几个统计信息的解释难以理解,所以本文花一些时间从源码的角度来解释一下。 让大家对这几个容易误解的统计值有更好的理解。

比较难理解的几个统计值为:

pg_stat_all_indexes 的

idx_scan       
idx_tup_read    
idx_tup_fetch   

pg_statio_all_indexes 的

idx_blks_read  
idx_blks_hit  

pg_stat_all_tables 的

seq_scan  
seq_tup_read  
idx_scan  
idx_tup_fetch  

pg_statio_all_tables 的

heap_blks_read   
heap_blks_hit    
idx_blks_read    
idx_blks_hit     
toast_blks_read     heap表对应的toast表统计字段   
toast_blks_hit        
tidx_blks_read      heap表的索引对应的toast索引统计字段   
tidx_blks_hit    

首先需要获得以上统计字段的信息来源:

postgres=# \d+ pg_stat_all_indexes   
           View "pg_catalog.pg_stat_all_indexes"  
    Column     |  Type  | Modifiers | Storage | Description   
---------------+--------+-----------+---------+-------------  
 relid         | oid    |           | plain   |   
 indexrelid    | oid    |           | plain   |   
 schemaname    | name   |           | plain   |   
 relname       | name   |           | plain   |   
 indexrelname  | name   |           | plain   |   
 idx_scan      | bigint |           | plain   | --pg_stat_get_numscans(i.oid) 
 idx_tup_read  | bigint |           | plain   | --pg_stat_get_tuples_returned(i.oid)
 idx_tup_fetch | bigint |           | plain   | --pg_stat_get_tuples_fetched(i.oid)
View definition:  
 SELECT c.oid AS relid,  
    i.oid AS indexrelid,  
    n.nspname AS schemaname,  
    c.relname,  
    i.relname AS indexrelname,  
    pg_stat_get_numscans(i.oid) AS idx_scan,  
    pg_stat_get_tuples_returned(i.oid) AS idx_tup_read,  
    pg_stat_get_tuples_fetched(i.oid) AS idx_tup_fetch  
   FROM pg_class c  
     JOIN pg_index x ON c.oid = x.indrelid  
     JOIN pg_class i ON i.oid = x.indexrelid  
     LEFT JOIN pg_namespace n ON n.oid = c.relnamespace  
  WHERE c.relkind = ANY (ARRAY['r'::"char", 't'::"char", 'm'::"char"]);  
postgres=# \d+ pg_statio_all_indexes   
          View "pg_catalog.pg_statio_all_indexes"  
    Column     |  Type  | Modifiers | Storage | Description   
---------------+--------+-----------+---------+-------------  
 relid         | oid    |           | plain   |   
 indexrelid    | oid    |           | plain   |   
 schemaname    | name   |           | plain   |   
 relname       | name   |           | plain   |   
 indexrelname  | name   |           | plain   |   
 idx_blks_read | bigint |           | plain   | -- pg_stat_get_blocks_fetched(i.oid)
                                                    - pg_stat_get_blocks_hit(i.oid)
 idx_blks_hit  | bigint |           | plain   | -- pg_stat_get_blocks_hit(i.oid)  

View definition:

 SELECT c.oid AS relid,  
    i.oid AS indexrelid,  
    n.nspname AS schemaname,  
    c.relname,  
    i.relname AS indexrelname,  
    pg_stat_get_blocks_fetched(i.oid) - pg_stat_get_blocks_hit(i.oid) AS idx_blks_read,
    pg_stat_get_blocks_hit(i.oid) AS idx_blks_hit  
   FROM pg_class c  
     JOIN pg_index x ON c.oid = x.indrelid  
     JOIN pg_class i ON i.oid = x.indexrelid  
     LEFT JOIN pg_namespace n ON n.oid = c.relnamespace  
  WHERE c.relkind = ANY (ARRAY['r'::"char", 't'::"char", 'm'::"char"]);  
postgres=# \d+ pg_stat_all_tables   
                        View "pg_catalog.pg_stat_all_tables"  
       Column        |           Type           | Modifiers | Storage | Description   
---------------------+--------------------------+-----------+---------+-------------  
 relid               | oid                      |           | plain   |   
 schemaname          | name                     |           | plain   |   
 relname             | name                     |           | plain   |   
 seq_scan            | bigint                   |           | plain   | -- pg_stat_get_numscans(c.oid)
 seq_tup_read        | bigint                   |           | plain   | -- pg_stat_get_tuples_returned(c.oid)
 idx_scan            | bigint                   |           | plain   | -- sum(pg_stat_get_numscans(i.indexrelid))
 idx_tup_fetch       | bigint                   |           | plain   | -- sum(pg_stat_get_tuples_fetched(i.indexrelid))
                                                                            + pg_stat_get_tuples_fetched(c.oid)  
 n_tup_ins           | bigint                   |           | plain   |   
 n_tup_upd           | bigint                   |           | plain   |   
 n_tup_del           | bigint                   |           | plain   |   
 n_tup_hot_upd       | bigint                   |           | plain   |   
 n_live_tup          | bigint                   |           | plain   |   
 n_dead_tup          | bigint                   |           | plain   |   
 n_mod_since_analyze | bigint                   |           | plain   |   
 last_vacuum         | timestamp with time zone |           | plain   |   
 last_autovacuum     | timestamp with time zone |           | plain   |   
 last_analyze        | timestamp with time zone |           | plain   |   
 last_autoanalyze    | timestamp with time zone |           | plain   |   
 vacuum_count        | bigint                   |           | plain   |   
 autovacuum_count    | bigint                   |           | plain   |   
 analyze_count       | bigint                   |           | plain   |   
 autoanalyze_count   | bigint                   |           | plain   |   
View definition:  
 SELECT c.oid AS relid,  
    n.nspname AS schemaname,  
    c.relname,  
    pg_stat_get_numscans(c.oid) AS seq_scan,  
    pg_stat_get_tuples_returned(c.oid) AS seq_tup_read,  
    sum(pg_stat_get_numscans(i.indexrelid))::bigint AS idx_scan,  
    sum(pg_stat_get_tuples_fetched(i.indexrelid))::bigint
                              + pg_stat_get_tuples_fetched(c.oid) AS idx_tup_fetch,  
    pg_stat_get_tuples_inserted(c.oid) AS n_tup_ins,  
    pg_stat_get_tuples_updated(c.oid) AS n_tup_upd,  
    pg_stat_get_tuples_deleted(c.oid) AS n_tup_del,  
    pg_stat_get_tuples_hot_updated(c.oid) AS n_tup_hot_upd,  
    pg_stat_get_live_tuples(c.oid) AS n_live_tup,  
    pg_stat_get_dead_tuples(c.oid) AS n_dead_tup,  
    pg_stat_get_mod_since_analyze(c.oid) AS n_mod_since_analyze,  
    pg_stat_get_last_vacuum_time(c.oid) AS last_vacuum,  
    pg_stat_get_last_autovacuum_time(c.oid) AS last_autovacuum,  
    pg_stat_get_last_analyze_time(c.oid) AS last_analyze,  
    pg_stat_get_last_autoanalyze_time(c.oid) AS last_autoanalyze,  
    pg_stat_get_vacuum_count(c.oid) AS vacuum_count,  
    pg_stat_get_autovacuum_count(c.oid) AS autovacuum_count,  
    pg_stat_get_analyze_count(c.oid) AS analyze_count,  
    pg_stat_get_autoanalyze_count(c.oid) AS autoanalyze_count  
   FROM pg_class c  
     LEFT JOIN pg_index i ON c.oid = i.indrelid  
     LEFT JOIN pg_namespace n ON n.oid = c.relnamespace  
  WHERE c.relkind = ANY (ARRAY['r'::"char", 't'::"char", 'm'::"char"])  
  GROUP BY c.oid, n.nspname, c.relname;  
postgres=# \d+ pg_statio_all_tables   
            View "pg_catalog.pg_statio_all_tables"  
     Column      |  Type  | Modifiers | Storage | Description   
-----------------+--------+-----------+---------+-------------  
 relid           | oid    |           | plain   |   
 schemaname      | name   |           | plain   |   
 relname         | name   |           | plain   |   
 heap_blks_read  | bigint |           | plain   | --  pg_stat_get_blocks_fetched(c.oid)
                                                      - pg_stat_get_blocks_hit(c.oid)
 heap_blks_hit   | bigint |           | plain   | --  pg_stat_get_blocks_hit(c.oid)  
 idx_blks_read   | bigint |           | plain   | --  sum(pg_stat_get_blocks_fetched(i.indexrelid) 
                                                      - pg_stat_get_blocks_hit(i.indexrelid))  
 idx_blks_hit    | bigint |           | plain   | --  sum(pg_stat_get_blocks_hit(i.indexrelid))  
 toast_blks_read | bigint |           | plain   | --  pg_stat_get_blocks_fetched(t.oid) 
                                                       - pg_stat_get_blocks_hit(t.oid)  
 toast_blks_hit  | bigint |           | plain   | --  pg_stat_get_blocks_hit(t.oid)  
 tidx_blks_read  | bigint |           | plain   | --  sum(pg_stat_get_blocks_fetched(x.indexrelid) - pg_stat_get_blocks_hit(x.indexrelid))  
 tidx_blks_hit   | bigint |           | plain   | --  sum(pg_stat_get_blocks_hit(x.indexrelid))  
View definition:  
 SELECT c.oid AS relid,  
    n.nspname AS schemaname,  
    c.relname,  
    pg_stat_get_blocks_fetched(c.oid) - pg_stat_get_blocks_hit(c.oid) AS heap_blks_read,  
    pg_stat_get_blocks_hit(c.oid) AS heap_blks_hit,  
    sum(pg_stat_get_blocks_fetched(i.indexrelid) - pg_stat_get_blocks_hit(i.indexrelid))::bigint AS idx_blks_read,  
    sum(pg_stat_get_blocks_hit(i.indexrelid))::bigint AS idx_blks_hit,  
    pg_stat_get_blocks_fetched(t.oid) - pg_stat_get_blocks_hit(t.oid) AS toast_blks_read,  
    pg_stat_get_blocks_hit(t.oid) AS toast_blks_hit,  
    sum(pg_stat_get_blocks_fetched(x.indexrelid) - pg_stat_get_blocks_hit(x.indexrelid))::bigint AS tidx_blks_read,  
    sum(pg_stat_get_blocks_hit(x.indexrelid))::bigint AS tidx_blks_hit  
   FROM pg_class c  
     LEFT JOIN pg_index i ON c.oid = i.indrelid  
     LEFT JOIN pg_class t ON c.reltoastrelid = t.oid  
     LEFT JOIN pg_index x ON t.oid = x.indrelid  
     LEFT JOIN pg_namespace n ON n.oid = c.relnamespace  
  WHERE c.relkind = ANY (ARRAY['r'::"char", 't'::"char", 'm'::"char"])  
  GROUP BY c.oid, n.nspname, c.relname, t.oid, x.indrelid;  

以上几个统计字段的统计信息来自如下函数:

 idx_scan        | bigint |           | plain   | --  pg_stat_get_numscans(i.oid)  
 idx_tup_read    | bigint |           | plain   | --  pg_stat_get_tuples_returned(i.oid)  
 idx_tup_fetch   | bigint |           | plain   | --  pg_stat_get_tuples_fetched(i.oid)  
 idx_blks_read   | bigint |           | plain   | --  pg_stat_get_blocks_fetched(i.oid)
                                                      - pg_stat_get_blocks_hit(i.oid)  
 idx_blks_hit    | bigint |           | plain   | --  pg_stat_get_blocks_hit(i.oid)  

 seq_scan        | bigint |           | plain   | --  pg_stat_get_numscans(c.oid)  
 seq_tup_read    | bigint |           | plain   | --  pg_stat_get_tuples_returned(c.oid)  
 idx_scan        | bigint |           | plain   | --  sum(pg_stat_get_numscans(i.indexrelid))  
 idx_tup_fetch   | bigint |           | plain   | --  sum(pg_stat_get_tuples_fetched(i.indexrelid))
                                                      + pg_stat_get_tuples_fetched(c.oid)  
 heap_blks_read  | bigint |           | plain   | --  pg_stat_get_blocks_fetched(c.oid)
                                                      - pg_stat_get_blocks_hit(c.oid)  
 heap_blks_hit   | bigint |           | plain   | --  pg_stat_get_blocks_hit(c.oid)  
 idx_blks_read   | bigint |           | plain   | --  sum(pg_stat_get_blocks_fetched(i.indexrelid)
                                                      - pg_stat_get_blocks_hit(i.indexrelid))  
 idx_blks_hit    | bigint |           | plain   | --  sum(pg_stat_get_blocks_hit(i.indexrelid))  
 toast_blks_read | bigint |           | plain   | --  pg_stat_get_blocks_fetched(t.oid)
                                                      - pg_stat_get_blocks_hit(t.oid)  
 toast_blks_hit  | bigint |           | plain   | --  pg_stat_get_blocks_hit(t.oid)  
 tidx_blks_read  | bigint |           | plain   | --  sum(pg_stat_get_blocks_fetched(x.indexrelid)
                                                       - pg_stat_get_blocks_hit(x.indexrelid))  
 tidx_blks_hit   | bigint |           | plain   | --  sum(pg_stat_get_blocks_hit(x.indexrelid))  

这些SQL函数对应的C函数如下:

postgres=# \df+ pg_stat_get_numscans  
|     Source code      |                   Description                      
+----------------------+--------------------------------------------------  
| pg_stat_get_numscans | statistics: number of scans done for table/index  

postgres=# \df+ pg_stat_get_tuples_returned  
|         Source code         |                 Description                    
+-----------------------------+----------------------------------------------  
| pg_stat_get_tuples_returned | statistics: number of tuples read by seqscan  

postgres=# \df+ pg_stat_get_tuples_fetched  
|        Source code         |                   Description                     
+----------------------------+-------------------------------------------------  
| pg_stat_get_tuples_fetched | statistics: number of tuples fetched by idxscan  

postgres=# \df+ pg_stat_get_blocks_fetched  
|        Source code         |             Description                
+----------------------------+--------------------------------------  
| pg_stat_get_blocks_fetched | statistics: number of blocks fetched  

postgres=# \df+ pg_stat_get_blocks_hit  
|      Source code       |                 Description                   
+------------------------+---------------------------------------------  
| pg_stat_get_blocks_hit | statistics: number of blocks found in cache  

以上5个C函数的源码分析

pg_stat_get_numscans  
  result = (int64) (tabentry->numscans);  

pg_stat_get_tuples_returned  
  result = (int64) (tabentry->tuples_returned);  

pg_stat_get_tuples_fetched  
  result = (int64) (tabentry->tuples_fetched);  

pg_stat_get_blocks_fetched  
  result = (int64) (tabentry->blocks_fetched);  

pg_stat_get_blocks_hit  
  result = (int64) (tabentry->blocks_hit);  

他们都是返回以下数据结构中的某项计数器的值:

/* ----------
 * PgStat_StatTabEntry The collector's data per table (or index)
 * ----------
 */
typedef struct PgStat_StatTabEntry
{
    Oid         tableid;

    PgStat_Counter numscans;

    PgStat_Counter tuples_returned;
    PgStat_Counter tuples_fetched;

    PgStat_Counter tuples_inserted;
    PgStat_Counter tuples_updated;
    PgStat_Counter tuples_deleted;
    PgStat_Counter tuples_hot_updated;

    PgStat_Counter n_live_tuples;
    PgStat_Counter n_dead_tuples;
    PgStat_Counter changes_since_analyze;

    PgStat_Counter blocks_fetched;
    PgStat_Counter blocks_hit;

    TimestampTz vacuum_timestamp;       /* user initiated vacuum */
    PgStat_Counter vacuum_count;
    TimestampTz autovac_vacuum_timestamp;       /* autovacuum initiated */
    PgStat_Counter autovac_vacuum_count;
    TimestampTz analyze_timestamp;      /* user initiated */
    PgStat_Counter analyze_count;
    TimestampTz autovac_analyze_timestamp;      /* autovacuum initiated */
    PgStat_Counter autovac_analyze_count;
} PgStat_StatTabEntry;

这些值是由pgstats进程来进行统计的

PgstatCollectorMain(int argc, char *argv[])  
{  
...  
    for (;;)  
    {  
        /* Clear any already-pending wakeups */  
        ResetLatch(&pgStatLatch);  

...  
            /*  
             * O.K. - we accept this message.  Process it.  
             */  
            switch (msg.msg_hdr.m_type)  
            {  
...  
                case PGSTAT_MTYPE_TABSTAT:  
                    pgstat_recv_tabstat((PgStat_MsgTabstat *) &msg, len);  
                    break;  
...  


/* ----------  
 * pgstat_recv_tabstat() -  
 *  
 *  Count what the backend has done.  
 * ----------  
 */  
static void  
pgstat_recv_tabstat(PgStat_MsgTabstat *msg, int len)  
{  
...  
            tabentry->numscans += tabmsg->t_counts.t_numscans;  
            tabentry->tuples_returned += tabmsg->t_counts.t_tuples_returned;  
            tabentry->tuples_fetched += tabmsg->t_counts.t_tuples_fetched;  
            tabentry->tuples_inserted += tabmsg->t_counts.t_tuples_inserted;  
            tabentry->tuples_updated += tabmsg->t_counts.t_tuples_updated;  
            tabentry->tuples_deleted += tabmsg->t_counts.t_tuples_deleted;  
            tabentry->tuples_hot_updated += tabmsg->t_counts.t_tuples_hot_updated;  
            tabentry->n_live_tuples += tabmsg->t_counts.t_delta_live_tuples;  
            tabentry->n_dead_tuples += tabmsg->t_counts.t_delta_dead_tuples;  
            tabentry->changes_since_analyze += tabmsg->t_counts.t_changed_tuples;  
            tabentry->blocks_fetched += tabmsg->t_counts.t_blocks_fetched;  
            tabentry->blocks_hit += tabmsg->t_counts.t_blocks_hit;  
...  

tabmsg->t_counts.? 则是通过如下macro进行改写的:

/* nontransactional event counts are simple enough to inline */  
#define pgstat_count_heap_scan(rel)   
  do {
    if ((rel)->pgstat_info != NULL)   
           (rel)->pgstat_info->t_counts.t_numscans++;  
  } while (0)  
#define pgstat_count_heap_getnext(rel) 
  do { 
       if ((rel)->pgstat_info != NULL)  
             (rel)->pgstat_info->t_counts.t_tuples_returned++;
  } while (0)  
#define pgstat_count_heap_fetch(rel) 
   do { 
      if ((rel)->pgstat_info != NULL)  
            (rel)->pgstat_info->t_counts.t_tuples_fetched++;
        } while (0)  
#define pgstat_count_index_scan(rel) 
    do {
         if ((rel)->pgstat_info != NULL) 
                (rel)->pgstat_info->t_counts.t_numscans++; 
        } while (0)  
#define pgstat_count_index_tuples(rel, n) 
     do {
         if ((rel)->pgstat_info != NULL) 
                  (rel)->pgstat_info->t_counts.t_tuples_returned += (n); 
        } while (0)  
#define pgstat_count_buffer_read(rel)  
    do {   
          if ((rel)->pgstat_info != NULL)  
                     (rel)->pgstat_info->t_counts.t_blocks_fetched++;  
      } while (0)  
#define pgstat_count_buffer_hit(rel)  
      do { 
               if ((rel)->pgstat_info != NULL)   
                   (rel)->pgstat_info->t_counts.t_blocks_hit++;  
        } while (0)  

取出每个macro对应的调用以及解释如下:

pgstat_count_index_scan(idx_oid)

统计指定索引的扫描次数,和扫描多少条记录无关,和node有个,一般看执行计划中,同一个索引如果在NODE中出现一次,那么就算扫描一次。

pgstat_count_index_tuples(rel, n)

统计从指定索引获取tid的条数

pgstat_count_heap_fetch

统计从使用指定索引的tid获取HEAP tuple的条数

pgstat_count_buffer_read

统计所有的buffer read次数, 包括在postgresql shared buffers中命中的,或者未在postgresql shared buffers中命中的。

pgstat_count_buffer_hit(rel)

统计在shared buffers中命中的buffer read次数。

pgstat_count_heap_scan(rel)

统计指定表的,全表扫描的次数,和返回的记录数无关,只和执行计划中的node相关,如果在plan中某个表只有一个seq scan的次数,则这条SQL执行一次时算一次。

pgstat_count_heap_getnext(rel)

指从全表扫描节点中扫描的记录数

梳理一下最初的统计字段和这些macro的对应关系:

pg_stat_all_indexes 的   
idx_scan         对应  pgstat_count_index_scan(idx_oid)  产生的计数的累加  
idx_tup_read     对应  pgstat_count_index_tuples(idx_oid, n)  产生的计数的累加  
idx_tup_fetch    对应  pgstat_count_heap_fetch(idx_oid)  产生的计数的累加  

pg_statio_all_indexes 的   
idx_blks_read    对应  pgstat_count_buffer_read(idx_oid)  产生的计数的累加  
idx_blks_hit     对应  pgstat_count_buffer_hit(idx_oid)  产生的计数的累加  

pg_stat_all_tables 的   
seq_scan         对应  pgstat_count_heap_scan(tbl_oid)  产生的计数的累加  
seq_tup_read     对应  pgstat_count_heap_getnext(tbl_oid)  产生的计数的累加  
idx_scan         对应  sum( 索引 pgstat_count_index_scan(tbl_oid) )  产生的计数的累加  
idx_tup_fetch    对应  sum( 索引 pgstat_count_index_tuples(idx_oid, n) ) + 
                      pgstat_count_heap_fetch(tbl_oid)  产生的计数的累加  

pg_statio_all_tables 的   
heap_blks_read    对应  pgstat_count_buffer_read(tbl_oid) - 
                       pgstat_count_buffer_hit(tbl_oid)  产生的计数的累加  
heap_blks_hit     对应  pgstat_count_buffer_hit(tbl_oid)  产生的计数的累加  
idx_blks_read     对应  sum( 索引 pgstat_count_buffer_read(idx_oid) - 
                       pgstat_count_buffer_hit(idx_oid) )  产生的计数的累加  
idx_blks_hit      对应  sum( pgstat_count_buffer_hit(idx_oid) )  产生的计数的累加  
toast_blks_read   对应  pgstat_count_buffer_read(toast_oid) - 
                        pgstat_count_buffer_hit(toast_oid)  产生的计数的累加  
toast_blks_hit    对应  pgstat_count_buffer_hit(toast_oid)   产生的计数的累加  
tidx_blks_read    对应  sum( 索引 pgstat_count_buffer_read(toast_idx_oid) - 
                        pgstat_count_buffer_hit(toast_idx_oid) )  产生的计数的累加  
tidx_blks_hit     对应  sum( pgstat_count_buffer_hit(toast_idx_oid) )  产生的计数的累加  

小结:

pg_stat_all_indexes 的

idx_scan 索引被扫描了多少次,和扫描多少条记录无关,和node有关,一般看执行计划, 同一个索引如果在NODE中出现一次,那么这条SQL执行时这个索引就算扫描一次。 idx_tup_read 从指定索引获取tid的条(tid是指向heap表数据块上某条记录的一个数据结构, 如(1,10)表示1号数据块的第10条记录) idx_tup_fetch 从索引的tid获取HEAP tuple的记数(每扫一条tuple计1)

pg_statio_all_indexes 的

idx_blks_read 该索引的buffer read记数(每读一个block记1次), 包括在postgresql shared buffers中命中的, 或者未在postgresql shared buffers中命中的。 idx_blks_hit 在postgresql shared buffers中命中的buffer read记数。

pg_stat_all_tables 的

seq_scan 全表扫描的次数 seq_tup_read 使用全表扫描扫过的tuple条数 idx_scan 该表的所有索引扫描次数总和 idx_tup_fetch 该表的所有 从索引的tid获取HEAP tuple的条数

pg_statio_all_tables 的

heap_blks_read 该表的buffer read记数, 包括在postgresql shared buffers中命中的, 或者未在postgresql shared buffers中命中的。 heap_blks_hit 在postgresql shared buffers中命中的buffer read记数。 idx_blks_read 该表所有索引 所有buffer read记数(含命中和未命中) idx_blks_hit 该表所有索引 在shared buffer命中的buffer read记数 toast_blks_read heap表对应的toast表统计字段 toast_blks_hit tidx_blks_read heap表的索引对应的toast索引统计字段 tidx_blks_hit

希望能帮助到大家,还不理解就要打屁屁了。


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